correlation between EI and work performance

correlation between EI and work performance

with Jimmy Petruzzi

Disagree with the view of causation between emotional intelligence and work/ academic performance, Though i agree with a correlation between EI and work performance.

According to Goleman, (1998), EI can be improved, and is more significant than intelligence, and how in sales environments people with high EI do better than people with less EI.

In contrast to  the research by Goleman, (1998). Research by Matthews et al.(2002)  raises concerns about the choice in the people administering the  MSCEIT V.2 test and the lack of scientific validity in the scoring system which would question the validity of the results.According to research by Landy & Conte, (2004) there are concerns about the scientific validity of emotional intelligence, specifying concerns about how EI is measured.The research suggests a weakness in emotional intelligence empirical validity,  and there appears to be doubts in the reliability of the  administration of testing protocols,

According to  research specified above, based around the scientific validity of EI, it would appear difficult to suggest a causation between emotional intelligence and work performance. Although upon examining  the literature comparatively a conclusion can be drawn there is a correlation between EI and work success,

Research by  Daus &Ashkanasy, ( 2005)  specify a positive correlation  between  emotional intelligence and work related performance although in contrast research by  Locke,( 2005)  takes a more negative view of the correlation between EI and work related performance, although pointing out potential benefits, the negative view tends to be based on the limited empirical research around EI. Which supports the argument of no causation  between EI and work based performance, though a potential correlaton.

Also of significance research Murphy, (2014) suggests emotional intelligence from a practical point of view lacks scientific credibility, and derives from the FFM. According to Murphy (2014) doubts over the reliability of self-reporting tests, for example someone applying for a job could consciously choose the most appropriate answer. The research supports a correlation of EI and work based performance, linking EI to the FFM model which has immense empirical evidence, although it appears  on its own it would be  difficult to suggest EI  is causative for work success or  causative testing protocols for successful work placement.

What are your thoughts on EI being a correlative factor to work success in adverse to causative?


Daus, C., & Ashkanasy, N. (2005). The case for the abilitybased model of emotional intelligence in organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 453-466.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. Bantam.


Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feelings. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M. (2004). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.


Murphy, K. R. (2014). A Critique of Emotional Intelligence: What Are the Problems and How Can

They Be Fixed? London: Psychology Press.


Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2002). Emotional intelligence: Science and myth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: a meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 71–95.

Piaget’s Theory of Child Development

Piaget’s Theory of Child Development


The best known human developmental stage model was developed by Jean Piaget, whose ideas became popular in the 1960s. He described four sequential stages of cognitive development from birth to adulthood. Piaget’s cognitive theory consists of three building blocks, namely (a) schemas, or building blocks of knowledge, (b) adaptation processes of equilibrium, assimilation, and accommodation that enables the transition from one stage to another, and (c) distinction of four steps of development. These developmental stages include the sensorimotor (0-2 years), preoperational (2-7 years), concrete operational (7-11 years), and formal operational (11 years+) periods. To today, the stages remain useful, especially to understand the cognitive development of children, but it has also attracted criticism.


Sensorimotor Stage


Piaget suggested that the first stage of human development, the sensorimotor stage, begins at birth and lasts to 2-years-old. When a baby is born, he or she starts to develop both physically and cognitively. Physical abilities include crawling, grasping, and pulling, and, as babies develop cognitive skills, they also start to think about their behaviors and react to different stimuli such as noises, movement, and emotions. These aspects are what defines the sensorimotor stage, which can be further subdivided into six types, namely simple reflexes, primary, secondary, and tertiary circular reactions, coordination of reactions, and early representational thought.


A reflex is an involuntary reaction that happens automatically without thinking and is prevalent for the first six weeks of life. Primary circular reactions occur around 1-4 months of age when they realize that they have the ability to repeat a movement such as placing their thumb in their mouth. Secondary circular reactions happen between 4-8 months, and the child learns to intentionally repeat an action to get a response in the environment.


Coordination of reactions, which include clearly intentional actions, exploring their immediate surroundings, imitating the observed behavior of others, and recognizing the qualities of objects, take place between 8-12 months. Tertiary circular reactions involves trial-and-error experimentation, especially trying out out different sounds or actions as a way of getting attention from a caregiver, at 12-18 months of age. In the final sensorimotor substage, early representational thought, children become aware of mental operations and begin to develop symbols to represent events of objects in the world.


Preoperational Stage


The second stage of child development, the preoperational stage, lasts from 2-years-old to the age of 7. During this period, children starts to talk and begin to engage in symbolic play during which they learn to manipulate symbols. Yet, Piaget argued, they do not understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people, which he termed egocentrism. They use pretending in play activities by using objects to represent something else and assuming others’ roles. During this time, few children showed an understanding of conservation, or the ability to determine that a certain quantity will remain the same despite adjustment of the container, shape, or apparent size.


Concrete Operational Stage


Piaget called the third developmental stage the concrete operational stage, which spans from 7- to 12-years-old. The main characteristic of the concrete operational stage are a better understanding of mental operations, such as thinking logically about concrete events and an awareness that actions can be reversed. However, they still have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. At his time, their understanding of conservation develops, and the marked egocentrism disappears.


Formal Operational Stage


Piaget’s final stage of child development happens in adolescence, from 12-year-old onward. During this fourth period of cognitive growth, abstract thought and hypothetical reasoning skills emerge. Children can use logic to come up with creative solutions to problems and apply systematic planning in the process. Deductive reasoning requires the ability to use a general principle to determine a particular outcome, while the capacity to think about abstract concepts means considering possible outcomes and consequences of actions rather than solely relying on previous experiences. Also, instead of depending on trial-and-error to solve problems, teens are able to plan an organized and systematic approach to achieve the same.


Criticism of Piaget’s Theory


More recent postformal development models criticized the fact that Piaget’s model does not cover adult cognitive development. Mostly, Piaget’s model assumes that thinking changes halt in adolescence and early adulthood. Until recently even, it has even been believed that adulthood brings a long and steady decline of cognitive capability. This is just illogical and definitely not correct but has shaped education and leadership development approaches of adults for many decades.


Also, there is an unclear association between cognitive and intellectual abilities. Piaget’s theory largely overlooks effects of cultural, social, and other contextual influences. The identification of distinct stages is oversimplified and assumes the same level of cognitive operations in all areas of functioning of any individual at a time. It also diminishes the impact of ego development and other psychological phenomena on cognitive processes, an issue that causes a failure to adequately account for dysfunctional behavior and psychological disturbances. Generally, no explanation is provided for a qualitative difference in cognitive capacity between two persons of the same age.


Piaget also assumed that individuals will automatically transcend to the next stage as they age, with the meaning of age generally defining developmental and social status. This is a fundamental flaw, especially when considering adult cognitive development. Contrary to earlier beliefs, children are not alike “little adults” with only incremental differences in physical ability, skills, and intelligence. Their cognitive structures and thinking patterns are vastly different. Thus, as a first step, several researchers expanded Piaget’s model to cover the whole lifespan, including the various adult stages of development, which is outside the scope of this material.


However, Piaget’s model remains useful to explain cognitive stages in child development, especially as he applied the concept of schema to an understanding of the development of learning in children. Piaget defined schema as the child’s mental representation of an associated set of perceptions, ideas, and/or behavior that form the basic building block of thinking. With the development of cognitive abilities, new schemata are constructed, while existing schemata are more efficiently organized to better adapt to the environment. Piaget also noted that an individual has the tendency to interpret new events about existing schemata rather than adapting or forming new ones. Therefore, the model describes how a child’s views and beliefs about himself, others, and the world builds over time until it becomes relatively fixed in late adolescence and plays a determining role in people’s emotions, thoughts, and behavior.

An examination of my career progression from a holistic perspective

An examination of my career progression from a holistic perspective

jimmy petruzzi
The question “Who am I?” invariably sets the stage for a journey to self-discovery. It is not a biographical or historical question that seeks information about a person’s origin or social status.
my love and my call to this field came from a belief that we needed in therapy was a holistic perspective there are a number of challenges the first as any time we try to change a conventional system on are natural human instinct is to come to protect torrential in our turf in our expertise and people have decades the training in all the sudden they’re like now I’m supposed to do something different that’s very scary but I think if you can bring the perspective back to people love this isn’t necessarily changing what you do but it may be changing the way in which you do it that’s a holistic perspective and I find that much less threatening to people practicing in conventional circles than the idea that they’re going to have to acquire whole new Set of tools and skills and knowledge base
have dear friends and colleagues who are holistic providers from every walk a professional practice whether they’re a practicing surgeon or they’re an acupuncturist I also have people in all of those worlds that ok maybe even be doing integrated recovery practices art necessarily very holistic in their perspective they don’t necessarily consider the mind the body the spirit the relational the environmental the social all of those aspects so it doesn’t really matter if you’re too
tool is a scalpel or an acupuncture needle it’s really the lens through which you look at in relate to the person that you’re interacting with and I really think that all health care professions have within them the capability to doing that and more importantly I think that that’s what patients and individuals want their health care
holism and how it can be applied to career progression
Holism is Fairley broad an nebulous term, it can mean many things to different people what holism essentially is it’s a kind of our way of viewing the world as a whole an inter connected interdependent entity everything is connected to everything else and it’s a reaction to scientific reductionism in particular. The idea became particular strong on the 19th century that one should study nature and for that matter society by chopping it up into small peace’s and examining those small peace’s and really understanding them and people a especially the late 19th or 20th century certain people had great problems with understanding this way of understanding the world argue that by focusing so much on this kind of mechanistic and reductive science people losing a sense of the whole and the way everything was connected to everything else so various scientists and intellectuals and writers then kind of developed what we consider to be a body of holistic thought over the course of the 20th century and I think one of the most important aspect to that is ecological holism this ecological world view that very much sees the world and everything in it as deeply interconnected including human beings who are not seen as something outside of the natural world but apart all these interconnections beginning in the eighteen hundreds science defined first medicine then psychology , now the roles are starting to reverse as psychology or several centuries corporate capitalist culture did meet the needs a majority of people perhaps as late as the nineteen fifties in 2011 Occupy Wall Street another’s observed into it that mainstream corporate capitalist culture was no longer meeting the needs of a majority of people
informational interviews , I conducted lots of informational interviews with people who are already doing what I was considering for myself ,they were able to provide a wealth of information on how they did it why they chose it what they love most about it what they love least about it. I asked specific questions and concerns about the career that I was considering. I also did job shadowing so I could also explore which careers were right for me by doing some job shadowing this simply means giving getting a sense of a day-in-the-life off so that I was in a better position to determine whether it’s something that I wanted. When i decided to start a coaching business i did on the side for two years while I had a full-time consulting job before I jumped into it as a full-time. I also did volunteering and interning. Volunteering and interning was a great way to get a sense of whether it’s something that I wanted to pursue more seriously.
Past progression, my dream was to be an athlete as a teenager and compete on the world stage , I had a achieved that and a big part of helping me achieve that was my search for answers. I came from a poor family, and my identity the way I was defined was I would accept working in a factory. Not that their anything wrong with that, I started to work in a factory very young and had to drop out of school as my mum was ill, and dad got injured at work. So I had to grow up fast, though my burning ambition was to compete around the world. So I saved some money and hired a coach who had a therapeutic background which helped me to overcome many imitating beliefs I had.
Injury had cut my career in athletics short and I then decided to become a coach myself and I studied hard went to university and completed many courses I had a thirst for education, worked at the highest level as a coach in football then felt it was time to move on and I worked for a number of years with young people in care homes and secure unit. This helped me to develop and understand people much better until I decided to leave that field and set up our own training company and 1 to 1 practice. All through out I have been committed to life long learning and I guess I have more or less tumbled into one thing or another.
Today many people approach their education pragmatically. They ask, “How will learning this prepare me for a job?” The implication of such a question is that if it does not help me get a job, it is not worth studying.
However, putting bread on the table is not all there is to a happy life. Life’s circumstances and experiences compel us to think about things beyond our daily bread. If this line of reasoning is right, if we cannot help but philosophize, then should we not learn to do it well? One way of learning how to do it is to listen carefully to others who have philosophized from many different times and places. We can learn by example even when we disagree with the views of those from whom we learn.
Depth and breadth of view, reflexivity, comprehension of complex arguments and texts, and the ability to think critically and objectively are all skills and abilities honed through the study of philosophy, claims Bertrand Russell. (Russell, 2007) Together these represent a mental toolkit that allows for a deeper and more systematic understanding and approach to the demands common in almost any competitive modern work environment. Philosophy is in large part concerned with the fundamentals that underlie our thinking, perceptions and beliefs. In thinking, as in most everything else, a sound understanding of the fundamentals is essential to success. Philosophy looks at the mechanics of rational thought and the fundamental assumptions that go into our general understanding of the world in order to better understand any particular theory, belief, idea, or problem.
My life did not always go to plan, I had dreams and ambition’s to be one thing or another though at some point due to personal circumstances I had to find acceptance. An acceptance is profound in that it exposes us to the raw, unadulterated experience of our life at this moment. It is the only way to meet life as it is, to face challenges and draw on opportunities as they present; everything else is fantasy, imagination, and hope. And these have never been effective strategies to cope, be resilient, and kick-start change.
My Current position is I find myself on a path of making a difference in the world I run training courses and do one to one session helping people learn to overcome challenges and setbacks.Be the best version of themselves.
Self-knowledge is an important virtue. This importance derives at least partly from the fact that self-knowledge enables us to pursue goals that we find personally fulfilling instead of being controlled by external, to some extent haphazard, influences. The idea that philosophical counselling is essentially ‘world view interpretation’ (Lahav, 1995) or ‘critical examination of life-directing conceptions’ (Schefczyk, 1995) becomes understandable from the stand-point of self-knowledge: the self that philosophical counsellors wish to elucidate by their questions and remarks certainly includes the counsellees’ conceptions. But we do not have to reduce the philosophically interesting self to beliefs and other such relatively cognitive elements. The virtue of self-knowledge also concerns our bodies and emotions.
Knowledge of the external world can be seen as a virtue to the extent that it enables us to lead personally satisfactory and morally acceptable lives (Cohen, 2005; Maxwell, 2000 and 2007; Ryan, 1999 and 2007). The truth of our beliefs about physical and social realities is important because the success of our activities depends on it. Ignorance may also lead us astray with respect to morally required ends. In our time knowledge of ecological threats and disasters, for example, might be seen as morally important.
Future plans/expectations are to carry on learning and doing what I do, though I am open to other possibilities. I want to carry on reaching as many people as possible through courses, books , audios and keep on learning doing different courses learning from different people. Be the best I can be.
Self-knowledge has a variety of dimensions and philosophers have proposed, and continue to propose, a host of different methods to explore or to establish the principles of a very particular form of knowledge such as this. Traditionally, empiricist and rationalist approaches have dominated the epistemic views of self-knowledge. The latter starts with Descartes, or even earlier, and continues until Kant; the former includes Locke and Hume. In fact, if one thinks of Hume and Kant as the most relevant modern representatives and the culmination points of both approaches to self-knowledge, it would seem perfectly acceptable to suggest that introspection plays a determinant methodological role. In the first case, let us remember what Hume famously said regarding his own mind and what he finds there: “For my part, when I enter most intimately into what I call myself, I always stumble on some particular perception or other, of hot or cold, light or shade, love or hatred, pain or pleasure. I never can catch myself, at any time without a perception, and never can observe anything but the perception” (D. Hume, 1984).
Openness to new ways of understanding ourselves and our world is a cognitive virtue (Lahav, 2001, 2006; Mattila, 2001a; Tukiainen, 2000). Occasionally we need radically new perspectives and novel concepts, and some of these notions may not be logically deducible from our present views. Such changes in point of view may be identical with, or at least lead to, re-evaluations of our situation. Reframing can also affect our feelings and behaviour, as Epictetus and many other philosophers have recognised (Cohen, 2003 and Mattila, 2001b).
Self-discovery leads to the development of the ethics of self-mastery. Many ethical systems prescribe how the individual could attain self-mastery by means of critical self-examination or self-analysis. Once such critical self-examination or self-analysis is successfully carried out, the individual begins to use himself, his personal preferences, as the standard of what is right or wrong. This is the background to the Confucian, Kantian and Existentialist ethics of categorical imperatives. Even in religious ethical systems that attribute the source of the moral law to divine authority, the individual still has to take a leap of faith to discover God’s purpose for his existence, which he then internalizes.
The principles articulated above are probably going to have their most accessible form in social learning group processes.
Holism is a rich and complex topic yet deeply simple and foundationally resonant,
The insistence of our society to view problems from one point of view this is the problem with linear thinking in general it’s the idea that there’s one problem one solution there are no isolated events all events are interactions between different events happening on different planes.
I have come to believe spirituality and science were separated at me for historic reasons and that it’s time now to reunite. In a single world fear that can encompass the best of our spiritual traditions and the best of scientific traditions. In my opinion not that I am advocating people don’t take prescribed drugs I am also not medically qualified to make a judgement, though pharmaceuticals in my opinion almost never deal with the reasons why peoples mental health problems exist while they frequently create new health problems and side effects of their activities the nature. The body is only as strong as its surrounding environment and their fuel we feed ourselves. Holism is based on the understanding that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Illness does not occur without a cause underlying causes of disease must be discovered and corrected in order for a person to get recovered from illness symptoms express the bodies attempt to heal or the body telling us it is sick. If we treat symptoms without looking at their cause the symptoms return and the illness has grown stronger. My understanding is much of the allopathic medicine works by suppressing the symptoms of illness instead of removing causes. The elimination f the symptoms is not the same as elimination of the illness itself. Looking at every aspect of ones health, social, emotional, spiritual and physical. a more holistic, more human approach to mental health
Hickson, H. (2011). Critical reflection: reflecting on learning to be reflective. Reflective Practice, 12(6), 829–839. Retrieved from:
Achenbach, G., (1998). On Wisdom in Philosophical Practice. Inquiry: Critical Thinking across the Disciplines

Psychology involves scientific study

Psychology involves   scientific study that means we use some pretty specific processes

and look at very specific information,


jimmy petruzzi

there are times when one in one doesn’t equal two, there is another way to think called synthesis where you ask what something is part of. You first identify the containing whole  it is a part of. Then you try to understand the behaviour the containing whole and finally you disaggregate the understanding of the whole and  finally you disaggregate the understanding of the whole by identifying the role or function. There are certain things we just can’t understand just by taking things apart. Like water for example, water is made out of hydrogen and oxygen and they are both gases. If you study water is it interacts with the environment around it. If you take it apart and study it you’ll never find wetness

what is systems thinking, it say you want to make a cup of tea, you put water in the kettle, you plug in the kettle, put a tea bag in your cup, and switch the kettle on until it boils and pour the water in the cup. In this case you deal  with only inanimate objects you  can change the sequence or  change the amount of ingredients this system is a deterministic system because we can determine the outcome by knowing the processes,  the boundaries of  the system are those of your  kitchen, which Is a sub system of your city, the system you are managing has  multiple layers of context,this system is also called and open system, which has in puts and out puts the input is converted to the out put through a process. We can optimise the system by economizing resources that a scarce if time is the scarce resource your first action might be to deploy the kettle, because you know that warming up the kettle takes longer than the other tasks

we need a new vision which involves comprehensive science to support us, there is a new theory emerging now, which places many concepts into one, coherent scientific framework, we call it systems theory, all living organisms as well as social systems and eco systems see this theory would help us get a much firm grasp on science, instead of concentrating  on basic building blocks

the system’s you concentrates on principals organizations instead of cutting things to peaces , it looks at the system as a whole. Someone could look at a tree and conceptually take it to peaces then he would never really understand the nature of the tree , a systems thinker would look at the tree and see the life of the tree in relation to the life of the whole forest.


psychological influences relate to the way we see the world, so that includes learning, which we define the associations that create relatively  permanent changes it  also includes thinking or  cognition the way we process information and personalities characteristic ways or thinking or behaviour , we also have a biological influence   it’s the nature peace of  the nature versus nurture debate  the things that are somewhat  hard-wired in human beings, ranging from microscopic neurons to the hormones sent out in a blood  from the endocrine system , moving onto the bigger organs and parts of the nervous system and the brain the sense organs and then coming back to the complicated workings of genetics, the biological influences are pretty hard to ignore the same way we don’t live in isolation hence the fact that we have in each year versus nurture debate, the presence and behaviours of others does affect us, each of these peace’s gives us a unique perspective on behaviour

so we need to think about all the pieces together, ensuing it becomes not nature or becomes nature and nurture together , our inability to classify things in one of the lenses or the other, different perspectives and influences on behaviour,

the experience of mental illness can be overwhelming, symptom’s like sadness, agitation,  overwhelming rage, panic attacks, mental illness and where to look for solutions, the biopsychosocial model, to think about this in terms of a Venn diagram with three overlapping circles, the first article contains the biological part of the picture, in any mental illness they’re likely to be biological factors, like heredity also certain illnesses can cause issues as well and trauma has an enormous impact,  on our bodies, we like to think of trauma of just a mental issue though it’s definitely a biological tissue to for solutions in the biological circle were talking about going to a doctor and getting onto medication, the second circle is psychological and spiritual in nature, this circle is about the experiences that have brought pain into our lives, and with that pain we’ve have thoughts  we’ve have feelings and those thoughts and those feelings can develop into beliefs like nobody can love me and I’ll always be abandoned  for solutions in this part of the circle we’re looking to therapy , in  therapy  we can learn to recognize these negative thoughts




the third circle is about our social environment what’s happening in our world right now

third circle is about our social environment what’s happening in our world right now there may be family stress there maybe job pressures are unemployment there may be difficult of the accident or injury  any kind of transition even positive transition bring stressed into our lives and when that happens we need to figure out how to deal with those issues in the social circle , in the social circle usually what we’re talking about is looking at our boundaries  and how we can be helped me in the area of self-care

I think dealing with mental is like learning to play a complicated instrument, learning about it, reading about it, is not going to  be enough, you will need practise  if you’re going to learn to play this instrument, often you need to take lessons and you can think about their be that way you’re learning to play an instrument of your life


The article I will focus on is

Freeman, J. (2005). Towards a definition of holism. British Journal of General Practice, 55(511), 154–155

Freeman discusses how practitioners who claim practise  holism are in fact biologically reductionist, I think Freeman made some great point as he emphasises they focus on a set of questions, with out looking at the big picture and also use  remedies which are not looking at the big picture. Freeman used a great example of sharmanic practise who say the are holistic, though when you look at things closer they in fact are reductionist.There is a misconception of what holism actually is Holism does not mean ‘anything outside traditional allopathy’.

I agree with the following statement made in Freemans article” The hope of a holistic approach is that we can employ many allies in the effort to bring better health to people”Freeman also makes a good pint about Swedish GPS talking about the importance of a holistic approach.

Reductionism treats people the same

A diagnosis caused by genes, chemical balance, one drug for all approach,

Holisms lets look at other things emotions, experiences, the whole person,

Reductionism scientific can be limiting creates rules for everyone, holism a variety of treatments /treatment methods, talking to the patient, talk therapy, understand the patients emotions, experiences and behaviours, using mri scans to understand genetics etc ,

Reductionism patients have same or similar symptons , Holism individualise the treatment ,

‘holistic’ are in fact far more biologically reductionist not looking at the bigger picture  no more holistic than the use of pharmaceuticals or surgery.

I guess what you class as holistic depends on where you stand, a brief review of the medical

literature suggests that there are multiple understandings of holism — it is used for a variety of approaches that come under the heading of ‘complementary’ or ‘alternative’ medicine, spirituality in health, nursing practice, and the more compehensive style of allopathic care suggested by the biopsychosocial model of George Engel, now widely accepted in the general practice community.

Holism is a rich and complex topic yet deeply simple and foundationally resonant. Holistic Science reflects both the topic of holism itself as well as the method through which to know .

I believe spirituality and science were separated at me for historic reasons and that it’s time now to

Reunite, that can encompass the best of our spiritual traditions and the best I scientific traditions.

We are in a living universe, sometimes science points towards celestial mechanics, that’s running down by entropy, that by some miracle life emerged from non-life and consciousness from unconsciousness intelligence from now on intelligence. Those have been the problems for Western science and while many western scientists have convinced themselves that there really are explanations for chemistry coming out of non-life and producing non life. physical reductionism is actually on its last legs despite it seemed to be the dominant paradigm in western academia, the universe is so mysterious and so strange, on duality can reduce it’ll consciousness and there’s nothing really but all consciousness and you’re in between those two as you and I.

can social psychology be studied as a science,

can social psychology be studied as a science,


jimmy petruzzi in this article i will discuss a personal experience and one of which social psychology has been used to study a social phenomenon. Having draw upon the perspectives of the following authors understanding and addressing social problems ( Schneider,F.W.,Gruman, J.A., & Coutts,L.M 2012) and an introduction to Social psychology ( Myers,D.G.,& Twenge,J.M.2013) I began reflecting on an experience i was delivering a training course. The course was in London, the course had commenced the 9th of September 2001. The group had arrived from all over the world. All with aspirations to learn new techniques to improve aspects of their businesses and life.The group had gelled really well and every body was getting on. It was a beautiful and sunny day which carried on through out the duration of the course.As we drew on the final day of the course it was the 11th of September.Delegates were exchanging numbers and contact details. It was an emotional morning as people had traveled from all over the UK and the world, it was an electric atmoshpere a fun few days though some great learnings. People had made friends and possibly friends for life. Two people who were getting on well, i shall use the following names for confidentially John from Qatar and Paula from London. The had got on really well on the course, had lunch together and  went to dinner together, they ran similar businesses had a similar out on life had travelled to many of the same places, and shared many common interests from cars, to holidays, and both at one point in their lives at a similar time had lived in the same place in the USA. Paula was originally from Israel though was living in London, and John was from Palestine living in Qatar.

We had got some news coming in though out the day that  aeroplanes had smashed into the world trade Center buildings in New York, though were  not clear about the situation, though we suspended the course as it had a big impact on the delegates. We still had half a day left to complete the course and my thoughts were under the circumstances it might be best suspending. The group wanted to know if i knew anything about what had happened and i told them as much as i knew from watching tv. When i proceeded to tell the group they many were in tears, and disbelief. There was a group on the course from New York and on of the members of the group had broke down in hysterics and said her husband works in the vicinity. At the back of the room there was a large shout from a hugely popular member of the group John, though his perception was going to change in one statement. John yelled this is retribution for what the Americans have been doing in the middle East. There was a sudden silence and  Paula had turned around to John and said how dare you amongst other things and a full blown heated conversation had erupted. At that point i was not sure what to do. So i called for order and my thoughts were let both parties who were at the heart of the furuous intarection have their say.If you want to know what happens next you will have to read the next part of the article which will elaborate how Social psychology has been used scientifically sucessfully and not so successfully.


(article above continued due to problems with the portal) Can social psychology be studied as a science, if you had a a set of tools on the floor, different  shapes sizes, the tools had different usages, you had spanners, hammers, saws, screw drives and many other tools scattered on the floor all mumbled up and mixed up with not items divided in no categories. Just as its important to organize the tools, organizing can be crucial. In my experience in the world of CBT, the emotions and thoughts of a person can be measured by empirical research. Social Psychology is defined as the science of human thought, feeling and behaviour, as the are influenced on other and have an influence of others ( Hogg and Vaughn). Each person as  uniquely different psychologically as their finger print, We all see the world differently and we perceive the world differently. People perception of an event or events is based on many permutations their beliefs, values, schema’s, experiences and it is a perception of that event that has an impacts on a person’s behavior and emotions, Social Psychology focuses on understanding behaviour and actions of people within a social context and environment. Through the efforts of Plato, the concepts of social facilitation  and social loafing were  introduced to people during the late 19th century. It is likely world war two had a significant impact on social psychology, governments taking a keen interest to measure the impact on various situations. With that researchers and scientists decided that empirical would be be best way to understand and assess human behaviour.

The famous Milgram experiment,, Milgram,S.( 1963 ) examine  the nature of human behaviour, the experiments were controversial  and likely never to be repeated again. What the experiment did indicate these potentially cruelty of people, The Milgram was interested as to how the Nazis could of committed such atrocities. The experiment gathered a group of students, to see just how far and how much punishment they would inflict on each other through electric shocks. The Milgram experiment highlighted the effects of obedience. People carried on doing the shocks on the commands of the authority. With a high proportion going to the highest level of shocks. That said the 40 subjects had volunteered to do the experiment, from a newspaper advert, Although the educational levels academically were variable. Milgram experiment variations, Milgrams experiment was carried out on different situation with several different permeations and produced  variable results. You could argue whether the experiment done in a laboratory controlled setting would have been different to  a real life scenario. I would argue the experiment did high light some important points such as the obedience of peoples under certain situations, All said and done they administered  shocks to people. Though i would argue if the original intention of the experiment had any validity. Completely different scenario,  different circumstances, and different situation.  My conclusion is the extent to which we conform to someone is based on there other persons position of authority in the group and the set of circumstances. The persons status in the group, how similar the peoples shared interest is and values and beliefs, the motivation to conform.  In the scenario which i discussed at the beginning  of my discussion i had taken the time to find out about both delegates on the course, and i put myself, or at least a moment to imagine what is was like to have experienced what they did. I felt a sense of empathy for both, both had lost family, both had to flee their homes, and both lives would never been the same. Both delegates said they wanted to stay and complete the course and i said it would be a good idea if they remained to diffuse the tension. So i let them tell there story with out interruption, Put themselves in one and others shoes with deep empathy, and whilst we did not solve the worlds problems to people had become reunited in a friendship again. Social Psychology can play a big part in our growth. Understanding each over better and ourselves playa big role in determining  our behaviour and interactions with others





Milgram,S.(1963), Behavoural study of obedience.Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67,371-378

Scheider,F.W, Gruman, J.A.,Coutts, L.M.( 2012). Applied Social Psychology, understanding and addressing social and practical problems ( 2nd ed,pp 3-21, 39-59,217-244


Schneider,F.W.,Gruman,J.A.,& Coutts,L.M. ( 2012) Applied Social psychology: understanding and addressing social and practical problems ( 2nd ed).London, England, Sage.

how imperative emotional intelligence and personality is in achieving success,



Research by Eby, Adam, Russell & Gaby, (2000) demonstrated how imperative emotional intelligence and personality is in achieving success, significantly stating how people adapt to the environment, and obtain goals.

According to Carmeli (2003) senior managers with high levels of emotional intelligence develop more positive attributions, with the ability to focus on controllable factors, increased awareness and empathy for staff, and achieve more  positive outcomes, also senior managers with high levels of emotional intelligence are able to segregate wok and home life more effectively.

Research by Schulte et al. (2004) suggested that emotional intelligence is not a unique concept, their research suggests that other variable’s such as personality traits, IQ, cognitive Intelligence, and gender contributed a significant variance in the scoring of emotional intelligence, which would suggest limitations EI tests in identifying the correlation between Emotional intelligence and career success.

According to Conte (2005) the self-reporting measure of emotional intelligence testing could impact the reliability and validity of results, suggesting if someone is partaking in an EI test for a specific purpose they may cognitively think through an appropriate answer. Which would suggest separating the mesh of other variables, and personality traits with key aspects of emotional intelligence is a challenge; suggesting  a close relation between the big 5 and emotional intelligence.

Salovey & Mayer, (1990) who first introduced the concept of EI in 1990, define EI as how people express emotion, regulate, and adapt the utilisation of emotions within application to tasks and problem solving, and suggest EI can be improved. Unlike personality traits that are fixed, if someone is neurotic at 15 years of age they are likely to be neurotic at 50.

Although  it is important to note different researchers describe emotional intelligence in different ways for example Goleman (2000) describes EI as self-awareness and perception of others, Martinez & Alda, (2005) defines EI as an extraction of non-cognitive skills and one’s ability to deal with external pressure. Emotional Intelligence like personality Traits can be difficult to define as they are an abstract concept, although Emotional intelligence is comparatively new, and does not have the scientific research base  as the FFM.

Research by Zadal (2004) examined the correlation between emotional intelligence and personality traits using the Goleman’s inventory test, which demonstrated a correlation between emotional intelligence and extraversion. Consistent with other research, extraversion appears to appear predominantly linked to emotional intelligence. Extraversion also has a strong correlation to performance.

Research by Williams, Myerson, & Hale (2008) suggests a person’s ability to process information has a correlation with behaviour, which affirms that individual differences play a role in an individual’s behaviour, although what is not clear is the correlation, context, consistency.


According to Pekaar, van der Linden,Bakker & Born (2017) There is  a correlation of Emotional intelligence tests  and individual’s performance at work. The research suggests emotional intelligence is a combination of individual differences and has a correlation to personality and several other variables in performance, emotional intelligence plays a bigger role in success in certain occupations. Though it is likely to be a correlation rather than a causation.



Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behaviour and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, (8): 788-813

  1. Cattell, R. (1943). The measurement of adult intelligence. Psychological Bulletin. 40. 153-193. 10.1037/h0059973.


Conte, J. M. (2005). A review and critique of emotional intelligence measures.

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26 , 433–440.

Conte, J. M. (2005). A review and critique of emotional intelligence measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26 , 433–440.

Ebby, L.Y, Adam, D.M, Rusell, J.E.A. & Gaby, S.H. (2000). Perceptions of organization readiness for change: factor related to employees’ reactions to the implementation of teambases selling.

Goleman, D. (2000). An EI-based theory of performance. In Goleman, D. & Cherniss, C. (Eds.), The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for, Measure, and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals, Groups, and Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, pp. 27-44.


Schulte MJ, Ree MJ, Carretta TR. Emotional intelligence: not much more than g and personality. Personality Individ Differ 2004;37:1059–68.


Joseph, D. L., & Newman, D. A. (2010). Emotional intelligence: An integrative meta-analysis and cascading model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 54-78.

Keri A. Pekaar, Dimitri van der Linden, Arnold B. Bakker & Marise Ph. Born (2017) Emotional intelligence and job performance: The role of enactment and focus on others’ emotions, Human Performance, 30:2-3,135-153, DOI: 10.1080/08959285.2017.1332630

Martınez-Miranda, J., & Aldea, A. (2005) Emotions in human and artificial intelligence. Computers in Human Behavior, 21(2), 323-341.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185–211

Williams, B., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2008). Individual Differences, Intelligence, and Behavior Analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior90(2), 219–231.


Zadel, A.(2004). Impact of personality and emotional intelligence on successful training in competences. Managing Global Transitions, 4(4), 363-376.Psychology,19 (2),88-110.

Factor Analysis of Personality Data Performing the Factor Analysis, Methodology, and Results

Module Project: Factor Analysis of Personality Data

Performing the Factor Analysis, Methodology, and Results


Name: Jimmy Petruzzi

jimmy petruzzi

MSC Mental health psychology  LPSY-302-5

LPSY 316: Personality, Individual Differences, and Intelligence






















Participants included 1006 people aged from 9 years of age to 12 years of age. Equal distribution of male and females, residing in the Nunavut state in  Canada. In accordance to the Canada School of Public Service Act, primary and secondary school attendance in Nunavut state is compulsory, part of the selection criteria was based on levels of school attendance. Participants were excluded if they had above unauthorised absenteeism above legal school attendance.

Participants parents and caregivers  were requested to   provide information on employment status in order for the questionnaire participation to reflect society to increase  social validity.


In designing the questionnaire we took into consideration the variable factors   which can impact the reliability of a participation response, factors such as interpretation of the question, the participants cognitive ability and motivation during the test.

The following research Gurven, Rueden, Massenkoff,Kaplan, Vie,(2013) indicated limitations of the FFM when administered amongst a rural community in Bolivia, the questionnaire was translated, though it appeared literacy was amongst the correlating factors impacting the reliability of the questionnaire, the significance  of this research was the FFM has been demonstrated to be more reliable in developed nations, whilst this is not a direct  correlating factor amongst our participants in the Intuit community  it did suggest taking  this and previous research into consideration  about adapting the FFM  for  the adolescents participants.

We produced a modified sample questionnaire, parent or carer consent was authorised to conduct   an initial modified version of the questionnaire.  The questionnaire was trialled amongst 124 participants, equal distribution of male and female, the age ranges between 9 years of age to 12 year of age. Upon modification  and administration  of the  modified  Questionnaire and an evaluation of the data. A 25-item questionnaire, Costa and McCrae (1992) was developed to measure the Big Five personality factors in Inuit children in Canada.

Five items were taken  from each of the five IPIP scales that measure the Big Five personality factors, adapting them where necessary so that they would be relevant to the lives and cognitive abilities of 9-year-old to 12-year-old Inuit children and translating them into the Inuktitut language.


Using the FFM Inventory developed by Costa and McCrae (1992), as a platform to develop  a  25- Item questionnaire procured  from  the IPIP,  utilising  a five point  Likert scale.

The participants completed the questionnaire with paper and black pen, SPSS program and software was used to   implement   the, Factor Analysis and PCA, the parallel analysis implemented with the e O’Connor learning resource


Informed consent was compulsory from parents and caregivers of the participants as the participants age range was 9 years of age to 12 years of age. The questionnaire was administered to the participants on the 23rd of June 2018 at 930am on commencement of the morning classroom lesson, the test was conducted in the school classrooms and the young people remained anonymous. The participants were instructed not to discuss questions with other participants, any questions could be discussed with study supervisors which could also speak intuit language

The duration for completion of the questionnaire, was in line with the duration of the compulsory education morning framework in Canada, which is approx. 2 hours and 30 minutes, as the questionnaire was designated during academic term time, minimal disruption to designated lesson, students returned to the usual class on completion.

The content of the questionnaire was the same for all participants, research by  Goldberg (2001) suggests the FFM can be adapted successfully  for the administration to suit the cognitive abilities of the participant’s, in accordance and consideration of research by Goldberg (2001) the questionnaire was adapted to suit the cognitive abilities of the participants and translated  from English into Intuit language to ensure  increased validity and reliability in measurements.










The object of the PCA was to Identify the eigenvalues, there after utilizing the eigenvalues  to conduct  a scree test.  We also conducted  the Kaiser-Guttman test to define the  number of factors, although we were uncertain about the accuracy of the data. We proceeded in  utilizing  the O’Connor resource and conducted a parallel analysis ( which can be referred to in the  appendix)

Once we identified the number of factors using the  O’Connor resource, based on the number of factors we had discovered in our data, we were able to conduct a Factor Analysis with Oblique Rotation using oblimin  utilising SPSS software ( the SPSS data can be referred to in the appendix)

Having conducted the PCA, the data indicated the first 6 components having an eigenvalue > 1.0.

The Mean eigenvalues we identified as 1.297, 1.252, 1.217, 1.189, 1.163, 1.137 see Table 2: below

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Factor Critical value eigenvalue Variance % Cumulative %
1 1.297 2.160 8.641 8.641
2 1.252 2.114 8.456 17.098
3 1.221 1.893 7.571 24.668
4 1.189 1.703 6.810 31.478
5 1.163 1.642 6.569 38.047
6 1.137 1.064 4.258 42.305

Table 2: Parallel-test of Eigenvalues

Having identified the list of eigenvalues we performed a scree test.

Figure-02: Scree-plot of unrotated PCA-test (please see index for scree plot diagram )

According to Field (2013) the inflection point of retaining factors is above the curve which can be identified on the Scree plot graph. The point of inflexion is where the slope of the line changes dramatically, our findings demonstrated  six factor-items loading  at point of inflection at component 7,  amongst components of the IPIP-25-item questionnaire  2.160,2.114,1.893,1.703,1.642  please see Table-03:

According to Stevens (2002) the Scree plot is relatively reliable in providing data for factor selection in samples of 200 participants or more, we had 1006 sample so we were confident in our data collected factor selection.

Rotated Principle analysis

Initial eigenvalues                                                      Loadings rotations

Factor total cumulative% total cumulative% total
1 2.160 8.641 1.411 5.642 1.375
2 2.114 17.098 1.370 11.121 1.359
3 1.893 24.668 1.131 15.647 1.100
4 1.703 31.478 .960 19.487 1.054
5 1.642 38.047 .866 22.952 .878

Table-03: PAF- Analysis test results

The factor rotation technique was used to differentiate between factors to interpret factor variable low and high loading with reliable extraction of data.

Upon establishing the data we ran a unrotated PCA to assist us in omitting the number of factor loads from the IPIP- 25 item questionnaire.

According to Horn (1965) we retain the factors that are higher from the research data, than the corresponding data which is run randomly.

Research by Fabrigar, & Wegener,(2012) was significant in our decision to utilised an oblique rotation method, we were able to identify the highest factor loadings see Figure 4:

According to  Cooper (2010), if we  use an oblique rotation, we should analyse the  Pattern matrix a table ( please see index)  the table enabled us to identify the factor for each item which has the highest loadings The items we analysed had correlations of  .4 and  higher, If they are related to each other, this means there are factors underlying the items and data.






Factor Analysis with Oblique Rotation

1:  Conscientiousness 2 (.524) 13 (-507) 17 (.506) 19 (.543) 22 (.519)  
2:  Neuroticism 5 (.430) 8 (.520) 11 (.492) 16 (.507) 24 (.476) 15 (-.407)
3: Extroversion 4 (.385) 6 (-.520) 14 (.476) 20(.404) 25 (.524)  
4: openness 3(.535) 10 (.552) 23 (.508) 21 (.423)    
5:agreeableness 1 (.448) 7(.448) 12 (.408) 18 (.535)    

Figure 4: Relationships between factors

We identified that 25 items questionnaire had successfully measured, by the five factors we expected. After analysing the results we were able to determine, factor 1 Conscientiousness  had a correlation  With 2 ,13 ,17 ,19 ,22,  Factor 2 neuroticism  had a correlation with 5,8,11,16,24,15 ,Factor 3 had a correlation with 4,6 ,14,20,25 ,Factor 4  openness had a correlation with 3,10,23,21,factor  5 had a correlation with 1,7,12 ,18

According to Cooper (2010) a minus sign indicates a negative correlation. We were able to establish item 13 belonging to factor 1 the consciousness group had a negative value of   (-507) which would indicate a question that was reverse scored. By conducting the analysis we were able to identify the responses that the participants had given to each item our specifically designed 25 questionnaire personality test.

Other Items which indicated a negative value were  6 (-.520) in the factor  3 group : Extroversion and 15  in the factor 2 group : Neuroticism (-.407) which also indicates reverse scoring questions,we were able to establish factor  2:  Neuroticism  had the highest level of responses from participants. We also established that  factor 1: consciousness  had each item scored >.5.

The item  16 (.507) loaded onto factor 2 instead of the expected factor 5,  (please see in the index)

And item 9 was omitted because it was  loaded onto factor  6, which did not feature on the PA test.

Using the following methods Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and The Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity

The results from the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test demonstrated a value of 0.703  according to Field (2013) the minimum level is 0.6>x

The Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity  result  was  (df 300)= ( 2152.769,  p< 0.005)

(statistics table  in Appendix)








Word count 1498 total

Results 871



Arthurs N et al (2014) Achievement for Students Who are Persistently Absent: Missing School, Missing Out? Urban Review. Dec2014, Vol. 46 Issue 5, p860-876. 17p.(Abstract only)

Cooper, C. (2010). Individual differences and personality (3rd ed.). London: Hodder Education. Retrieved from

Statistics Canada, Education in Canada: A Statistical Review, Ottawa, 1973-2000.

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO-PI(R) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Fabrigar, L. R., & Wegener, D. T. (2012). Exploratory factor analysis. [electronic book]. Oxford; Oxford University PressChapter 17: “Exploratory factor analysis”

Field, A. (2013). Discovering Statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (4th Eds). UK: Sage Publication.

Gurven, M., von Rueden, C., Massenkoff, M., Kaplan, H., & Vie, M. L. (2013). How Universal Is the Big Five? Testing the Five-Factor Model of Personality Variation Among Forager–Farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology104(2), 354–370.

Horn, J. L. (1965), “A Rationale and Test For the Number of Factors in Factor Analysis,” Psychometrika, 30, 179-85.

Jolliffe, I. (1986). Principal Component Analysis. Springer Verlag.

Parallel Analysis. Retrieved from

Stevens, J. P. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (4th ed.). Hillsdale, NS: Erlbaum.














6 scores greater than 1


Total Variance Explained
Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings
Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative %
1 2.160 8.641 8.641 2.160 8.641 8.641
2 2.114 8.456 17.098 2.114 8.456 17.098
3 1.893 7.571 24.668 1.893 7.571 24.668
4 1.703 6.810 31.478 1.703 6.810 31.478
5 1.642 6.569 38.047 1.642 6.569 38.047
6 1.064 4.258 42.305 1.064 4.258 42.305
7 .932 3.730 46.035      
8 .907 3.626 49.661      
9 .881 3.525 53.186      
10 .866 3.462 56.648      
11 .850 3.399 60.047      
12 .828 3.312 63.359      
13 .817 3.268 66.628      
14 .805 3.221 69.848      
15 .769 3.074 72.923      
16 .756 3.025 75.948      
17 .740 2.960 78.908      
18 .727 2.907 81.814      
19 .706 2.825 84.639      
20 .684 2.734 87.373      
21 .678 2.714 90.087      
22 .668 2.673 92.760      
23 .633 2.533 95.292      
24 .596 2.383 97.676      
25 .581 2.324 100.000      
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.



The factors that are above the curve ( inflection point of retaining factors









According to Horn (1965) we retain the factors that are higher from the research data, than the corresponding data which is run randomly

Component or Factor Mean Eigenvalue Percentile Eigenvalue
1 1.297120 1.335867
2 1.252433 1.283924
3 1.217893 1.246695
4 1.189013 1.212341
5 1.162260 1.184262
6 1.138026 1.159807
7 1.115636 1.137627
8 1.093496 1.114383
9 1.071495 1.088771
10 1.051154 1.068740
11 1.030922 1.048493
12 1.011218 1.027736
13 0.991996 1.008935
14 0.973965 0.989698
15 0.955395 0.970783
16 0.936674 0.953473
17 0.917567 0.934328
18 0.898220 0.915141
19 0.879027 0.896027
20 0.859719 0.877748
21 0.838560 0.856029
22 0.817029 0.835840
23 0.795043 0.814159
24 0.769624 0.792291
25 0.736516 0.765227






















KMO and Bartlett’s Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .703
Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 2152.769
df 300
Sig. .000







4, 6, 14, 20, 25


5, 8, 11, 15, 24


3, 9, 10, 21, 23


1, 7, 12, 16, 18


2, 13, 17, 19, 22







Pattern Matrixa
1 2 3 4 5
19 .543        
2 .524        
22 .519        
13 -.507        
17 .506        
8   .520      
16   .507      
11   .492      
24   .476      
5   .430      
15   -.407      
25     .524    
6     -.520    
14     .476    
20     .404    
4     .385    
10       .552  
3       .535  
23       .508  
21       .423  
18         .535
1         .448
7         .448
12         .408
Extraction Method: Principal Axis Factoring.

Rotation Method: Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization.

a. Rotation converged in 4 iterations.