Psychology involves scientific study

Psychology involves   scientific study that means we use some pretty specific processes

and look at very specific information,


jimmy petruzzi

there are times when one in one doesn’t equal two, there is another way to think called synthesis where you ask what something is part of. You first identify the containing whole  it is a part of. Then you try to understand the behaviour the containing whole and finally you disaggregate the understanding of the whole and  finally you disaggregate the understanding of the whole by identifying the role or function. There are certain things we just can’t understand just by taking things apart. Like water for example, water is made out of hydrogen and oxygen and they are both gases. If you study water is it interacts with the environment around it. If you take it apart and study it you’ll never find wetness

what is systems thinking, it say you want to make a cup of tea, you put water in the kettle, you plug in the kettle, put a tea bag in your cup, and switch the kettle on until it boils and pour the water in the cup. In this case you deal  with only inanimate objects you  can change the sequence or  change the amount of ingredients this system is a deterministic system because we can determine the outcome by knowing the processes,  the boundaries of  the system are those of your  kitchen, which Is a sub system of your city, the system you are managing has  multiple layers of context,this system is also called and open system, which has in puts and out puts the input is converted to the out put through a process. We can optimise the system by economizing resources that a scarce if time is the scarce resource your first action might be to deploy the kettle, because you know that warming up the kettle takes longer than the other tasks

we need a new vision which involves comprehensive science to support us, there is a new theory emerging now, which places many concepts into one, coherent scientific framework, we call it systems theory, all living organisms as well as social systems and eco systems see this theory would help us get a much firm grasp on science, instead of concentrating  on basic building blocks

the system’s you concentrates on principals organizations instead of cutting things to peaces , it looks at the system as a whole. Someone could look at a tree and conceptually take it to peaces then he would never really understand the nature of the tree , a systems thinker would look at the tree and see the life of the tree in relation to the life of the whole forest.


psychological influences relate to the way we see the world, so that includes learning, which we define the associations that create relatively  permanent changes it  also includes thinking or  cognition the way we process information and personalities characteristic ways or thinking or behaviour , we also have a biological influence   it’s the nature peace of  the nature versus nurture debate  the things that are somewhat  hard-wired in human beings, ranging from microscopic neurons to the hormones sent out in a blood  from the endocrine system , moving onto the bigger organs and parts of the nervous system and the brain the sense organs and then coming back to the complicated workings of genetics, the biological influences are pretty hard to ignore the same way we don’t live in isolation hence the fact that we have in each year versus nurture debate, the presence and behaviours of others does affect us, each of these peace’s gives us a unique perspective on behaviour

so we need to think about all the pieces together, ensuing it becomes not nature or becomes nature and nurture together , our inability to classify things in one of the lenses or the other, different perspectives and influences on behaviour,

the experience of mental illness can be overwhelming, symptom’s like sadness, agitation,  overwhelming rage, panic attacks, mental illness and where to look for solutions, the biopsychosocial model, to think about this in terms of a Venn diagram with three overlapping circles, the first article contains the biological part of the picture, in any mental illness they’re likely to be biological factors, like heredity also certain illnesses can cause issues as well and trauma has an enormous impact,  on our bodies, we like to think of trauma of just a mental issue though it’s definitely a biological tissue to for solutions in the biological circle were talking about going to a doctor and getting onto medication, the second circle is psychological and spiritual in nature, this circle is about the experiences that have brought pain into our lives, and with that pain we’ve have thoughts  we’ve have feelings and those thoughts and those feelings can develop into beliefs like nobody can love me and I’ll always be abandoned  for solutions in this part of the circle we’re looking to therapy , in  therapy  we can learn to recognize these negative thoughts




the third circle is about our social environment what’s happening in our world right now

third circle is about our social environment what’s happening in our world right now there may be family stress there maybe job pressures are unemployment there may be difficult of the accident or injury  any kind of transition even positive transition bring stressed into our lives and when that happens we need to figure out how to deal with those issues in the social circle , in the social circle usually what we’re talking about is looking at our boundaries  and how we can be helped me in the area of self-care

I think dealing with mental is like learning to play a complicated instrument, learning about it, reading about it, is not going to  be enough, you will need practise  if you’re going to learn to play this instrument, often you need to take lessons and you can think about their be that way you’re learning to play an instrument of your life


The article I will focus on is

Freeman, J. (2005). Towards a definition of holism. British Journal of General Practice, 55(511), 154–155

Freeman discusses how practitioners who claim practise  holism are in fact biologically reductionist, I think Freeman made some great point as he emphasises they focus on a set of questions, with out looking at the big picture and also use  remedies which are not looking at the big picture. Freeman used a great example of sharmanic practise who say the are holistic, though when you look at things closer they in fact are reductionist.There is a misconception of what holism actually is Holism does not mean ‘anything outside traditional allopathy’.

I agree with the following statement made in Freemans article” The hope of a holistic approach is that we can employ many allies in the effort to bring better health to people”Freeman also makes a good pint about Swedish GPS talking about the importance of a holistic approach.

Reductionism treats people the same

A diagnosis caused by genes, chemical balance, one drug for all approach,

Holisms lets look at other things emotions, experiences, the whole person,

Reductionism scientific can be limiting creates rules for everyone, holism a variety of treatments /treatment methods, talking to the patient, talk therapy, understand the patients emotions, experiences and behaviours, using mri scans to understand genetics etc ,

Reductionism patients have same or similar symptons , Holism individualise the treatment ,

‘holistic’ are in fact far more biologically reductionist not looking at the bigger picture  no more holistic than the use of pharmaceuticals or surgery.

I guess what you class as holistic depends on where you stand, a brief review of the medical

literature suggests that there are multiple understandings of holism — it is used for a variety of approaches that come under the heading of ‘complementary’ or ‘alternative’ medicine, spirituality in health, nursing practice, and the more compehensive style of allopathic care suggested by the biopsychosocial model of George Engel, now widely accepted in the general practice community.

Holism is a rich and complex topic yet deeply simple and foundationally resonant. Holistic Science reflects both the topic of holism itself as well as the method through which to know .

I believe spirituality and science were separated at me for historic reasons and that it’s time now to

Reunite, that can encompass the best of our spiritual traditions and the best I scientific traditions.

We are in a living universe, sometimes science points towards celestial mechanics, that’s running down by entropy, that by some miracle life emerged from non-life and consciousness from unconsciousness intelligence from now on intelligence. Those have been the problems for Western science and while many western scientists have convinced themselves that there really are explanations for chemistry coming out of non-life and producing non life. physical reductionism is actually on its last legs despite it seemed to be the dominant paradigm in western academia, the universe is so mysterious and so strange, on duality can reduce it’ll consciousness and there’s nothing really but all consciousness and you’re in between those two as you and I.

can social psychology be studied as a science,

can social psychology be studied as a science,


jimmy petruzzi in this article i will discuss a personal experience and one of which social psychology has been used to study a social phenomenon. Having draw upon the perspectives of the following authors understanding and addressing social problems ( Schneider,F.W.,Gruman, J.A., & Coutts,L.M 2012) and an introduction to Social psychology ( Myers,D.G.,& Twenge,J.M.2013) I began reflecting on an experience i was delivering a training course. The course was in London, the course had commenced the 9th of September 2001. The group had arrived from all over the world. All with aspirations to learn new techniques to improve aspects of their businesses and life.The group had gelled really well and every body was getting on. It was a beautiful and sunny day which carried on through out the duration of the course.As we drew on the final day of the course it was the 11th of September.Delegates were exchanging numbers and contact details. It was an emotional morning as people had traveled from all over the UK and the world, it was an electric atmoshpere a fun few days though some great learnings. People had made friends and possibly friends for life. Two people who were getting on well, i shall use the following names for confidentially John from Qatar and Paula from London. The had got on really well on the course, had lunch together and  went to dinner together, they ran similar businesses had a similar out on life had travelled to many of the same places, and shared many common interests from cars, to holidays, and both at one point in their lives at a similar time had lived in the same place in the USA. Paula was originally from Israel though was living in London, and John was from Palestine living in Qatar.

We had got some news coming in though out the day that  aeroplanes had smashed into the world trade Center buildings in New York, though were  not clear about the situation, though we suspended the course as it had a big impact on the delegates. We still had half a day left to complete the course and my thoughts were under the circumstances it might be best suspending. The group wanted to know if i knew anything about what had happened and i told them as much as i knew from watching tv. When i proceeded to tell the group they many were in tears, and disbelief. There was a group on the course from New York and on of the members of the group had broke down in hysterics and said her husband works in the vicinity. At the back of the room there was a large shout from a hugely popular member of the group John, though his perception was going to change in one statement. John yelled this is retribution for what the Americans have been doing in the middle East. There was a sudden silence and  Paula had turned around to John and said how dare you amongst other things and a full blown heated conversation had erupted. At that point i was not sure what to do. So i called for order and my thoughts were let both parties who were at the heart of the furuous intarection have their say.If you want to know what happens next you will have to read the next part of the article which will elaborate how Social psychology has been used scientifically sucessfully and not so successfully.


(article above continued due to problems with the portal) Can social psychology be studied as a science, if you had a a set of tools on the floor, different  shapes sizes, the tools had different usages, you had spanners, hammers, saws, screw drives and many other tools scattered on the floor all mumbled up and mixed up with not items divided in no categories. Just as its important to organize the tools, organizing can be crucial. In my experience in the world of CBT, the emotions and thoughts of a person can be measured by empirical research. Social Psychology is defined as the science of human thought, feeling and behaviour, as the are influenced on other and have an influence of others ( Hogg and Vaughn). Each person as  uniquely different psychologically as their finger print, We all see the world differently and we perceive the world differently. People perception of an event or events is based on many permutations their beliefs, values, schema’s, experiences and it is a perception of that event that has an impacts on a person’s behavior and emotions, Social Psychology focuses on understanding behaviour and actions of people within a social context and environment. Through the efforts of Plato, the concepts of social facilitation  and social loafing were  introduced to people during the late 19th century. It is likely world war two had a significant impact on social psychology, governments taking a keen interest to measure the impact on various situations. With that researchers and scientists decided that empirical would be be best way to understand and assess human behaviour.

The famous Milgram experiment,, Milgram,S.( 1963 ) examine  the nature of human behaviour, the experiments were controversial  and likely never to be repeated again. What the experiment did indicate these potentially cruelty of people, The Milgram was interested as to how the Nazis could of committed such atrocities. The experiment gathered a group of students, to see just how far and how much punishment they would inflict on each other through electric shocks. The Milgram experiment highlighted the effects of obedience. People carried on doing the shocks on the commands of the authority. With a high proportion going to the highest level of shocks. That said the 40 subjects had volunteered to do the experiment, from a newspaper advert, Although the educational levels academically were variable. Milgram experiment variations, Milgrams experiment was carried out on different situation with several different permeations and produced  variable results. You could argue whether the experiment done in a laboratory controlled setting would have been different to  a real life scenario. I would argue the experiment did high light some important points such as the obedience of peoples under certain situations, All said and done they administered  shocks to people. Though i would argue if the original intention of the experiment had any validity. Completely different scenario,  different circumstances, and different situation.  My conclusion is the extent to which we conform to someone is based on there other persons position of authority in the group and the set of circumstances. The persons status in the group, how similar the peoples shared interest is and values and beliefs, the motivation to conform.  In the scenario which i discussed at the beginning  of my discussion i had taken the time to find out about both delegates on the course, and i put myself, or at least a moment to imagine what is was like to have experienced what they did. I felt a sense of empathy for both, both had lost family, both had to flee their homes, and both lives would never been the same. Both delegates said they wanted to stay and complete the course and i said it would be a good idea if they remained to diffuse the tension. So i let them tell there story with out interruption, Put themselves in one and others shoes with deep empathy, and whilst we did not solve the worlds problems to people had become reunited in a friendship again. Social Psychology can play a big part in our growth. Understanding each over better and ourselves playa big role in determining  our behaviour and interactions with others





Milgram,S.(1963), Behavoural study of obedience.Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67,371-378

Scheider,F.W, Gruman, J.A.,Coutts, L.M.( 2012). Applied Social Psychology, understanding and addressing social and practical problems ( 2nd ed,pp 3-21, 39-59,217-244


Schneider,F.W.,Gruman,J.A.,& Coutts,L.M. ( 2012) Applied Social psychology: understanding and addressing social and practical problems ( 2nd ed).London, England, Sage.